How does the wireless computer mouse work?


This article deals with the working principle of the wireless computer mouse as an input device to the computer. Wireless mouse works on radio frequency or optical technology principle. Read the complete article to get more details on its working principle and its comparison with the ordinary wired mouse.

A computer has many types of devices that are mainly classified into input devices, output devices, processing devices, storage devices, accessories and display devices. Any desktop computer comes with the monitor as display devices, keyboard, and mouse as input devices. Normally, all these devices transmit and receive data by wires attached to the CPU unit. In the early days of telecommunications, landline phones were of a wired type and today because of technological advancement, they became obsolete and wireless phones or smartphones have replaced them with respect to functions and technological benefits. In the same way, a wired mouse is nowadays replaced by the wireless mouse for easy function and mobility or portability easiness.

Working principle of a wireless mouse


Wireless mouse works on the principle of Radio Frequency (RF) technology. Wireless mouse has two components, one is the transmitter and second is a receiver. The transmitter of a wireless mouse is located inside the mouse and it sends the electromagnetic signals or radio data signals which are nothing but an encoded data or information of mouse movements. The transmitter transmits the encoded data to the receiver which is a USB 2.0 or USB 3.0 device (connected to PC or laptop) that accepts the data and decodes it and sends it to the driver software installed in the operating system managed by CPU (Central Processing Unit). The receiver does not need any battery power and it gets active from PC or laptop power. A transmitter is an individual unit but receiver along with CPU processes the data including location on windows or clicking or scrolling and give feedback to a transmitter to perform accordingly with respect to movement change.
How does the wireless computer mouse work

How wireless mouse better than ordinary mouse?


Wireless mouse works on optical technology while ordinary uses wire cable or cord to receive and transmit the input data. An optical or wireless mouse can work on any surface independent of any surface type and roughness. The transmission length can be of 30 feet in some cases but normally 10 feet distance mouse are also available. Wireless mouse is portable because it is free of any cable. The battery is only consumed during activities and it remains in standby mode when no activity is performed, thus saving power. RF signals can pass through any barrier which can be the display screen, bag or anything. RF signal can be produced by using low power battery and because of this, the RF signal transmitter is lightweight in construction.

Types of wireless mouses


There are mainly two types of wireless mouses. Optical mouse with LED technology and Laser mouse with laser technology.

1. Optical wireless mouse


The main component of the optical mouse is LED and CMOS sensor which produces the red light which tracks the movement of the mouse. CMOS sensor captures the image of the movement and sends it to Digital Signal Processor (DSP). DSP analyze the pattern of the image with 400 to 800 DPI (Dots per Inch) resolution.

2. Laser mouse:


It works on the same wireless principle but it captures the image with better resolution i.e. 2000 DPI and it uses invisible laser rays to detect the movement of the mouse.

Final remarks


Wireless mouse uses wireless technology RF signals as a movement data, clicking, and scrolling. A transmitter transmits the movement, click and scrolling data to the receiver which is attached to the PC or laptop with CPU and driver software. The feedback from the PC received back to a transmitter. Because of wireless function, portability and mobility is an added advantage. The optical mouse can function on any surface including the rough or fine surface.


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