There are a few data recovery softwares available. For them to work, you will need to remove the affected drive and connect it to another active system. Make sure you have the necessary tools and equipment. Once you connect the drive to your system, proceed to download the data recovery softwares.
A note of concern here - make sure your active system has an updated anti virus solution in place. You cannot be sure of what might have caused the hard disk to go damaged. Something on it may make your active system go dizzy and start misbehaving.
A few good data recovery softwares are -
Recuva is in fact the number one data recovery software. It has been an indispensable option for Windows data recovery solutions. It makes the daunting task simple and easy. What's more - it's free!
This is yet another great tool for recovering the data from a damaged hardware. Again a free tool, it runs on any partition type. It can recover data real.quick.
Best strategy would be to avoid working with the drive once you realize that it is damaged. The more you work with it, more data will be overwritten. Thus making recovery next to impossible.
Here is an advice though not related to the question under discussion. I would advice all of those to use some data backup strategy to avoid such issues. Opt for some sort of backup. Go for both local and online backup strategy. Every hard drive is bound to fail and when it does, you will not need to run from pillar to post trying recover your data. You can simply format the drive (if it is still usable) or just replace it.
Live....and Let Live!