These are the basic terms which you will see whenever checking about any engine of bike, car, truck, etc. As you asked more about these terms, they will help you in estimating vehicles power, handling, etc.
CC - CC refers to engine displacements. It is the volume displaced by all the pistons in one revolution. In Engineering terms CC is said to be Centi-meter cube or Cubic Inch. Engine Displacement (CC) can be calculated through strokes and bores of any engine. CC don't have any connection to engine's power (mostly), you will see many Harley Davidson's bikes with 1600 CC engines but with horse-power of only 55 horse power whereas a KTM RC 390 is of 383 CC and outputs 44 horse power which is much more in the ratio of Harley Davidson.
Horse Power & bhp - No spelling mistake bhp is written like that only. Horse Power and bhp are same, bhp is normally Horse Power's unit. They both refers to power of any engine. Horse power is calculated on basis of James Watt formula by checking how much weight engine can lift in certain period of time.
Dry Weight - It is the weight of your vehicle in stock condition. Fully stock condition - No Accessories, No Petrol/Diesel, etc. To calculate everything you will need to remove everything which you think is fitted by you.
Displacement - As I fully elaborated it, Displacement is same as CC.
Transmission - Normally people says it as Gear. It will protect your engine from straining. There are two types of transmission - Manual and Automatic. In Automatic transmission you just need to shift your gear knob to D and you are good to go. There is no clutch just brake and acceleration pedal. Another part is manual transmission in which you will have to use your gear knob to change your gears, there can be 5 gears, 6 gears or even 7 gears on the basis of engine displacement.
Fuel System - I don't think I want to say more about it. Fuel system is based on the fuel type supported by your vehicles engine. There are normally 4 types of Fuel supported by vehicles- Petrol, Diesel, CNG and LPG.
Exhaust - Whenever engine works it generates some toxic gases which can harm your car's engine. So engineers made a pipeline right through Engine to the end of your vehicle which normally emits gases. It is known as Exhaust System.
Suspension - Every vehicles comes fitted with shocker near every wheel so that it can help you to go through every broken road. Shockers normally absorb jerks by moving up and down which will save you from almost feeling those heavy jerks.
Torque - It is the power to the tires which give you sudden pickup. It is normally calculated by RPM meter present in almost every car.
So I hope I cleared all the terms you asked to me if there are still any issues then you can just ask question about it again.
I am currently pursuing High School and planning to pursue career in Computer. Currently, I work on one of my blog - JTech Articles.